History of Psychology

Psychology is the science of the relatively young (around the late 1800s.) However, people throughout history have noticed psychological problems. Like the Greek philosophers, especially Plato and Aristotle. After the St. Augustine (354-430) is considered a major figure in modern psychology because of its attention on introspection and curiosity about psychological phenomena. Descartes (1596-1650) proposed a theory that animals are machines that can be learned as the other machines. It also introduces the concept of reflex work. Many other famous philosophers in the seventeenth century and eighteenth-Leibnits, Hobbes, Locke, Kant, and Hume-contribution in the field of psychology. At that time psychology was shaped not be science discourse.Contemporary psychology
Beginning in the 19th century, at which time it developed two theories in explaining behavior, namely:

Psychology Faculty
Psychology faculty is the 19th century doctrine of the existence of innate mental powers, according to this theory, the ability of psychology fragmented in several ‘faculties’ which include: thinking, feeling, and willing. The faculty is divided into several subfakultas: subfakultas we recall through memory, through subfakultas imaginary imagery, and so on.

Psychological Association
Part of the 19th century that contemporary psychology believes that psychology is essentially a process of ‘association of ideas.’ Where ideas come in through the senses and associated by certain principles such as similarity, contrast, and proximity.

In the later development of psychology, marked by the establishment of laboratory psychology by Wundt (1879.) At the time the assessment is based on the psychology of the scientific method (eksperimental.) also introduced the method introspection, experimentation, etc.. Some history is worth noting include: F. merintis test psikologi.”>Galton> pioneered the psychological test. C. memulai melakukan komparasi dengan binatang.”>Darwin> start doing comparisons with animals. A. merintis penggunaan hipnosis S.”>Mesmer> pioneered the use of hypnosis S. merintis psikoanalisa”>Freud> pioneered psychoanalysis
Psychology As a Science

Although there had always been thinking about the study of human beings in the same period with the idea of ​​the study of nature, but because of the complexity and dynamism of human to understand, then created a new psychology as a science since the late 1800s both when Wilhelm Wundt established the The world’s first psychology laboratory.

Wundt laboratory
In 1879 Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany. With the establishment of this laboratory, the scientific method to better understanding the human have been found, though not too inadequate. with the establishment of this laboratory also play, the requirement for a scientific psychology, so the founding of Wundt recognized laboratory as well as the date of the founding of psychology as a science.

Flow establishment of Psychoanalysis
Flow establishment Behaviorist
Flow establishment phenomenological
Psychology As a Science Function
Psychology as a science has three functions, namely:
Explain
That is able to explain what, how, and why the behavior occurred. The results are in the form of an explanation or description that is descriptive discussion.
Predicts
That is able to foresee or predict what, how, and why the behavior occurred. Prediction results in the form of prognosis, prediction or estimation.
Control
That control the behavior as expected. Manifestations in the form of action or treatment.
Psychology Approach
Behavior can be explained in different ways, in psychology there are at least 5 approaches, namely
Neurobiological approach
Human behavior is essentially controlled by the activity of the brain and nervous system. Neurobiological approaches that attempt to link the behavior seen with electrical and chemical implus occurring in the body and determine the underlying neurobiology of behavior and mental processes.

Behaviour Approach
According to this approach behavior is basically a response to the stimulus is coming. In simple terms can be described in the model S – R or a link Stimulus – Response. This means that as a reflex behavior without mental work at all. This approach was pioneered by J.B. Watson subsequently developed by many experts, such as Skinner, and gave birth to many sub-streams.

Cognitive Approach
This approach emphasizes that behavior is a mental process, in which the individual (organism) active in capturing, assessing, comparing, and responding to the stimulus prior to the reaction. If the model is created as follows S – O – R. Individuals receiving the stimulus of mental process before reacting to stimulus that comes.

Psychoanalysis approach

This approach was developed by Sigmund Freud. He believes that an individual’s life largely controlled by the subconscious. Behavior so much based on things that are not aware of, such as desire, implus, or encouragement. Repressed desire or impulse that will linger in the subconscious, and at times will require to be satisfied.

Phenomenology approach
This approach is more attention on the individual’s subjective experience because it’s behavior is strongly influenced by the individual’s sense of self and the world, the truth about himself, his pride and anything that involves consciousness or self-actualization. This means looking at a person’s behavior is always associated with the phenomenon of himself.
Psychological Assessment

Psychology is a broad and ambitious science, supplemented by biology on its border with the natural sciences and equipped by the sociology and anthropology at the border with the social sciences. several studies of psychology include:

Developmental psychology
Is the field of study of psychology who studies human development and the factors that shape a person’s behavior from birth to advanced age. Developmental psychology is closely related to social psychology, because most of the growth occurred in the context of the social interaction. And is also closely related to the psychology of personality, because the development of individuals can form a distinctive personality of the individual.

Social psychology
3 has the scope, namely:
study of social influences on individual processes, for example: the study of perception, motivation and learning, attribution (nature)

study of individual processes together, such as language, social attitudes, behaviors and imitate others
study of group interaction, such as: leadership, communication, power relations, cooperation, competition, conflict;Psychology of personality
Is the field of study of psychology that studies human behavior in adjusting to the environment, is closely related to personality psychology and social psychology, developmental psychology, because personality is the result of individual development from a young age and how the individual in social interaction with their environment.

Cognitive psychology
Is the field of study of psychology that studies the ability of cognition, such as perception, learning, memory, attention, language skills and emotion.
Application areas of Psychology

Application area of ​​psychology is the study areas where psychology can be applied. however, not Indonesian people unfamiliar with the application area of ​​specialization makes ambiguous. for example, an educational psychologist may be working in a HR firm, or vice versa.

Educational psychology
Educational psychology is the development of developmental psychology and social psychology, so that most of the theories in developmental psychology and social psychology used in educational psychology. Educational psychology studying how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of a teaching, teaching methods, school organization and management.

School Psychology
School psychology in favor of trying to create a situation for students to develop the academic skills, socialization, and emotion.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Industrial psychology focuses on menggembangan, evaluate and predict the performance of a task carried out by the individual, organizational psychology while studying how an organization influence and interact with its members.

Engineering psychology
Application of Psychology is related to the interaction between humans and machines to minimize human error when dealing with a machine (human error).

Clinical Psychology
Psychology is a field of study and application of psychology to understand, prevent and restore the psychological state of the individual to the normal threshold.
Misguided About Psychology

Not Psychology Science
Psychology has had a requirement to be able to stand on its own as Philosophy of science in spite of. (Terms Sciences: Having Objects (behavior), has Research Methods (since Wundt founded psychology laboratory have proved the Scientific Method), systematic, and universal.

View more information on this subject in the article Controversy psychology.
Wrong classification
Various things that smell is often incorporated into personality psychology, such as: the predictions about personality (palmistry, chirology, etc..) To form a view of psychology is not a science.

Stuck With Words Psycho
Psychology is not just psychological, but this is part of the psychology of the most popular in the community. many people are cynical about psychology because psychological test, how psychologists can convict someone with just a piece of potential test? no, there are many other methods that can be used, but (for example in a test for a job) is not possible to implement all methods of psychology held within a narrow and a lot of clients.

Doing Psychology De-humanization
opposite, psychology view each individual is unique, even psychological test conducted to better understand the uniqueness of each individual. Instead, each individual among the leveler is not immediately sentenced humans are robots (dehumanization) which does not have the uniqueness of each other.

Part of parapsychology Psychology
Parapsychology psychology despite the name is not psychology or a branch of psychology. parapsychology developing its own apart from psychology. parapsychology study all matters relating to human and mind (in this case, most of the forecast) while the only psychology that studies human behavior can be seen (observerble) and can be measured (measureable).

Posted on December 24, 2011, in Psikolgy Article. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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